android – Jumping scrolling when switching fragments-ThrowExceptions

Exception or error:

Inside a ScrollView I am dynamically switching between two fragments with different heights.
Unfortunately that leads to jumping. One can see it in the following animation:

  1. I am scrolling down until I reach the button “show yellow”.
  2. Pressing “show yellow” replaces a huge blue fragment with a tiny yellow fragment. When this happens, both buttons jump down to the end of the screen.

I want both buttons to stay at the same position when switching to the yellow fragment. How can that be done?

roll

Source code available at https://github.com/wondering639/stack-dynamiccontent respectively https://github.com/wondering639/stack-dynamiccontent.git

Relevant code snippets:

activity_main.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<androidx.core.widget.NestedScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
android:id="@+id/myScrollView"
android:layout_width="match_parent"
android:layout_height="match_parent">

<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    tools:context=".MainActivity">

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/textView"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="800dp"
        android:background="@color/colorAccent"
        android:text="@string/long_text"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent" />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/button_fragment1"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
        android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
        android:text="show blue"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toStartOf="@+id/button_fragment2"
        app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.5"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/button_fragment2"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
        android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
        android:text="show yellow"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.5"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toEndOf="@+id/button_fragment1"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

    <FrameLayout
        android:id="@+id/fragment_container"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/button_fragment2">

    </FrameLayout>

</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>

MainActivity.kt

package com.example.dynamiccontent

import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity
import android.os.Bundle
import android.widget.Button

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main)

        // onClick handlers
        findViewById<Button>(R.id.button_fragment1).setOnClickListener {
            insertBlueFragment()
        }

        findViewById<Button>(R.id.button_fragment2).setOnClickListener {
            insertYellowFragment()
        }


        // by default show the blue fragment
        insertBlueFragment()
    }


    private fun insertYellowFragment() {
        val transaction = supportFragmentManager.beginTransaction()
        transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, YellowFragment())
        transaction.commit()
    }


    private fun insertBlueFragment() {
        val transaction = supportFragmentManager.beginTransaction()
        transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, BlueFragment())
        transaction.commit()
    }


}

fragment_blue.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<FrameLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
android:layout_width="match_parent"
android:layout_height="400dp"
android:background="#0000ff"
tools:context=".BlueFragment" />

fragment_yellow.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<FrameLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
android:layout_width="match_parent"
android:layout_height="20dp"
android:background="#ffff00"
tools:context=".YellowFragment" />

HINT

Please note that this is of course a minimum working example to show off my issue. In my real project, I also have views below the @+id/fragment_container. So giving a fixed size to @+id/fragment_container is not an option for me – it would cause a large blank area when switching to the low, yellow fragment.

UPDATE: Overview of proposed solutions

I implemented the proposed solutions for testing purposes and added my personal experiences with them.

answer by Cheticamp, https://stackoverflow.com/a/60323255

-> available in https://github.com/wondering639/stack-dynamiccontent/tree/60323255

-> FrameLayout wraps content, short code

answer by Pavneet_Singh, https://stackoverflow.com/a/60310807

-> available in https://github.com/wondering639/stack-dynamiccontent/tree/60310807

-> FrameLayout gets the size of the blue fragment. So no content wrapping. When switching to the yellow fragment, there’s a gap between it and the content following it (if any content follows it). No additional rendering though!
** update ** a second version was provided showing how to do it without gaps. Check the comments to the answer.

answer by Ben P., https://stackoverflow.com/a/60251036

-> available in https://github.com/wondering639/stack-dynamiccontent/tree/60251036

-> FrameLayout wraps content. More code than the solution by Cheticamp. Touching the “show yellow” button twice leads to a “bug” (buttons jump down to the bottom, actually my original issue). One could argue about just disabling the “show yellow” button after switching to it, so I wouldn’t consider this a real issue.

How to solve:

Update: To keep the other views right below the framelayout and to handle the scenario automatically, we need to use onMeasure to implement the auto-handling so do the following steps

• Create a custom ConstraintLayout as:

import android.content.Context
import android.os.Build
import android.util.AttributeSet
import androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout
import kotlin.math.max

/**
 * Created by Pavneet_Singh on 2020-02-23.
 */

class MaxHeightConstraintLayout @kotlin.jvm.JvmOverloads constructor(
    context: Context,
    attrs: AttributeSet? = null,
    defStyleAttr: Int = 0
) : ConstraintLayout(context, attrs, defStyleAttr){

    private var _maxHeight: Int = 0

    // required to support the minHeight attribute
    private var _minHeight = attrs?.getAttributeValue(
        "http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android",
        "minHeight"
    )?.substringBefore(".")?.toInt() ?: 0

    override fun onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec: Int, heightMeasureSpec: Int) {

        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN) {
            _minHeight = minHeight
        }

        var maxValue = max(_maxHeight, max(height, _minHeight))

        if (maxValue != 0 && && maxValue > minHeight) {
            minHeight = maxValue
        }
        _maxHeight = maxValue
        super.onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec)
    }

}

and use it in your layout in place of ConstraintLayout

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<androidx.core.widget.NestedScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:id="@+id/myScrollView"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent">

    <com.example.pavneet_singh.temp.MaxHeightConstraintLayout
        android:id="@+id/constraint"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"
        tools:context=".MainActivity">

        <TextView
            android:id="@+id/textView"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="800dp"
            android:background="@color/colorAccent"
            android:text="Some long text"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_fragment1"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
            android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
            android:text="show blue"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toStartOf="@+id/button_fragment2"
            app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.3"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_fragment2"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
            android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
            android:text="show yellow"
            app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.3"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toEndOf="@+id/button_fragment1"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_fragment3"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
            android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
            android:text="show green"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.3"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toEndOf="@+id/button_fragment2"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

        <FrameLayout
            android:id="@+id/fragment_container"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@id/button_fragment3" />

        <TextView
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="match_parent"
            android:text="additional text\nMore data"
            android:textSize="24dp"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/fragment_container" />

    </com.example.pavneet_singh.temp.MaxHeightConstraintLayout>

</androidx.core.widget.NestedScrollView>

This will keep track of height and apply it during every fragment change.

Output:

Note: As mentioned in comments before, setting minHeight will result in additional rendering pass and it cannot be avoided in the current version of ConstraintLayout.


Old approach with custom FrameLayout

This is an interesting requirement and my approach is to solve it by creating a custom view.

Idea:

My idea for the solution is to adjust the height of the container by keeping the track of the largest child or total height of children in the container.

Attempts:

My first few attempts were based on modifying the existing behaviour of NestedScrollView by extending it but it doesn’t provide access to all the necessary data or methods. Customisation resulted in poor support for all scenarios and edge cases.

Later, I achieved the solution by creating a custom Framelayout with different approach.

Solution Implementation

While implementing the custom behaviour of height measurement phases, I dug deeper and manipulated the height with getSuggestedMinimumHeight while tracking the height of children to implement the most optimised solution as it will not cause any additional or explicit rendering because it will manage the height during the internal rendering cycle so create a custom FrameLayout class to implement the solution and override the getSuggestedMinimumHeight as:

class MaxChildHeightFrameLayout @JvmOverloads constructor(
    context: Context,
    attrs: AttributeSet? = null,
    defStyleAttr: Int = 0
) : FrameLayout(context, attrs, defStyleAttr) {

    // to keep track of max height
    private var maxHeight: Int = 0

    // required to get support the minHeight attribute
    private val minHeight = attrs?.getAttributeValue(
        "http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android",
        "minHeight"
    )?.substringBefore(".")?.toInt() ?: 0


    override fun getSuggestedMinimumHeight(): Int {
        var maxChildHeight = 0
        for (i in 0 until childCount) {
            maxChildHeight = max(maxChildHeight, getChildAt(i).measuredHeight)
        }
        if (maxHeight != 0 && layoutParams.height < (maxHeight - maxChildHeight) && maxHeight > maxChildHeight) {
            return maxHeight
        } else if (maxHeight == 0 || maxHeight < maxChildHeight) {
            maxHeight = maxChildHeight
        }
        return if (background == null) minHeight else max(
            minHeight,
            background.minimumHeight
        )
    }

}

Now replace the FrameLayout with MaxChildHeightFrameLayout in activity_main.xml as:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<androidx.core.widget.NestedScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:id="@+id/myScrollView"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent">

    <androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"
        tools:context=".MainActivity">

        <TextView
            android:id="@+id/textView"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="800dp"
            android:background="@color/colorAccent"
            android:text="Some long text"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_fragment1"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
            android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
            android:text="show blue"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toStartOf="@+id/button_fragment2"
            app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.5"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_fragment2"
            android:layout_width="0dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
            android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
            android:text="show yellow"
            app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
            app:layout_constraintHorizontal_bias="0.5"
            app:layout_constraintStart_toEndOf="@+id/button_fragment1"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/textView" />

        <com.example.pavneet_singh.temp.MaxChildHeightFrameLayout
            android:id="@+id/fragment_container"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:minHeight="2dp"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/button_fragment2"/>

    </androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>
</androidx.core.widget.NestedScrollView>

getSuggestedMinimumHeight() will be used to calculate the height of the view during the view rendering lifecycle.

Output:

With more views, fragment and different height. (400dp, 20dp, 500dp respectively)

###

A straightforward solution is to adjust the minimum height of the ConstraintLayout within the NestedScrollView before switching fragments. To prevent jumping, the height of the ConstraintLayout must be greater than or equal to

  1. the amount by which the NestedScrollView has scrolled in the “y” direction

plus

  1. the height of the NestedScrollView.

The following code encapsulates this concept:

private fun adjustMinHeight(nsv: NestedScrollView, layout: ConstraintLayout) {
    layout.minHeight = nsv.scrollY + nsv.height
}

Please note that layout.minimumHeight will not work for ConstraintLayout. You must use layout.minHeight.

To invoke this function, do the following:

private fun insertYellowFragment() {
    val transaction = supportFragmentManager.beginTransaction()
    transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, YellowFragment())
    transaction.commit()

    val nsv = findViewById<NestedScrollView>(R.id.myScrollView)
    val layout = findViewById<ConstraintLayout>(R.id.constraintLayout)
    adjustMinHeight(nsv, layout)
}

It is similar for insertBlueFragment(). You can, of course, simplify this by doing findViewById() once.

Here is a quick video of the results.

enter image description here

In the video, I have added a text view at the bottom to represent additional items that may exist in your layout below the fragment. If you delete that text view, the code will still work, but your will see blank space at the bottom. Here is what that looks like:

enter image description here

And if the views below the fragment don’t fill the scroll view, you will see the additional views plus white space at the bottom.

enter image description here

###

Your FrameLayout inside activity_main.xml has a height attribute of wrap_content.

Your child fragment layouts are determining the height differences you’re seeing.

Should post up your xml for the child fragments

Try setting a specific height to the FrameLayout in your activity_main.xml

###

I solved this by creating a layout listener that keeps track of the “previous” height and adds padding to the ScrollView if the new height is less than before.

  • HeightLayoutListener.kt
class HeightLayoutListener(
        private val activity: MainActivity,
        private val root: View,
        private val previousHeight: Int,
        private val targetScroll: Int
) : ViewTreeObserver.OnGlobalLayoutListener {

    override fun onGlobalLayout() {
        root.viewTreeObserver.removeOnGlobalLayoutListener(this)

        val padding = max((previousHeight - root.height), 0)
        activity.setPaddingBottom(padding)
        activity.setScrollPosition(targetScroll)
    }

    companion object {

        fun create(fragment: Fragment): HeightLayoutListener {
            val activity = fragment.activity as MainActivity
            val root = fragment.view!!
            val previousHeight = fragment.requireArguments().getInt("height")
            val targetScroll = fragment.requireArguments().getInt("scroll")

            return HeightLayoutListener(activity, root, previousHeight, targetScroll)
        }
    }
}

To enable this listener, add this method to both of your fragments:

override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

    val listener = HeightLayoutListener.create(this)
    view.viewTreeObserver.addOnGlobalLayoutListener(listener)
}

These are the methods that the listener calls in order to actually update the ScrollView. Add them to your activity:

fun setPaddingBottom(padding: Int) {
    val wrapper = findViewById<View>(R.id.wrapper) // add this ID to your ConstraintLayout
    wrapper.setPadding(0, 0, 0, padding)

    val widthMeasureSpec = View.MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(wrapper.width, View.MeasureSpec.EXACTLY)
    val heightMeasureSpec = View.MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(0, View.MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED)
    wrapper.measure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec)
    wrapper.layout(0, 0, wrapper.measuredWidth, wrapper.measuredHeight)
}

fun setScrollPosition(scrollY: Int) {
    val scroll = findViewById<NestedScrollView>(R.id.myScrollView)
    scroll.scrollY = scrollY
}

And you need to set arguments to your fragments in order for the listener to know what the previous height and the previous scroll position were. So make sure to add them to your fragment transactions:

private fun insertYellowFragment() {
    val fragment = YellowFragment().apply {
        this.arguments = createArgs()
    }

    val transaction = supportFragmentManager.beginTransaction()
    transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, fragment)
    transaction.commit()
}


private fun insertBlueFragment() {
    val fragment = BlueFragment().apply {
        this.arguments = createArgs()
    }

    val transaction = supportFragmentManager.beginTransaction()
    transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, fragment)
    transaction.commit()
}

private fun createArgs(): Bundle {
    val scroll = findViewById<NestedScrollView>(R.id.myScrollView)
    val container = findViewById<View>(R.id.fragment_container)

    return Bundle().apply {
        putInt("scroll", scroll.scrollY)
        putInt("height", container.height)
    }
}

And that should do it!

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