atomic writing to file with Python-ThrowExceptions

Exception or error:

I am using Python to write chunks of text to files in a single operation:

open(file, 'w').write(text)

If the script is interrupted so a file write does not complete I want to have no file rather than a partially complete file. Can this be done?

How to solve:

Write data to a temporary file and when data has been successfully written, rename the file to the correct destination file e.g

f = open(tmpFile, 'w')
f.write(text)
# make sure that all data is on disk
# see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7433057/is-rename-without-fsync-safe
f.flush()
os.fsync(f.fileno()) 
f.close()

os.rename(tmpFile, myFile)

According to doc http://docs.python.org/library/os.html#os.rename

If successful, the renaming will be an atomic operation (this is a
POSIX requirement). On Windows, if dst
already exists, OSError will be raised
even if it is a file; there may be no
way to implement an atomic rename when
dst names an existing file

also

The operation may fail on some Unix flavors if src and dst are on different filesystems.

Note:

  • It may not be atomic operation if src and dest locations are not on same filesystem

  • os.fsync step may be skipped if performance/responsiveness is more important than the data integrity in cases like power failure, system crash etc

Answer:

A simple snippet that implements atomic writing using Python tempfile.

with open_atomic('test.txt', 'w') as f:
    f.write("huzza")

or even reading and writing to and from the same file:

with open('test.txt', 'r') as src:
    with open_atomic('test.txt', 'w') as dst:
        for line in src:
            dst.write(line)

using two simple context managers

import os
import tempfile as tmp
from contextlib import contextmanager

@contextmanager
def tempfile(suffix='', dir=None):
    """ Context for temporary file.

    Will find a free temporary filename upon entering
    and will try to delete the file on leaving, even in case of an exception.

    Parameters
    ----------
    suffix : string
        optional file suffix
    dir : string
        optional directory to save temporary file in
    """

    tf = tmp.NamedTemporaryFile(delete=False, suffix=suffix, dir=dir)
    tf.file.close()
    try:
        yield tf.name
    finally:
        try:
            os.remove(tf.name)
        except OSError as e:
            if e.errno == 2:
                pass
            else:
                raise

@contextmanager
def open_atomic(filepath, *args, **kwargs):
    """ Open temporary file object that atomically moves to destination upon
    exiting.

    Allows reading and writing to and from the same filename.

    The file will not be moved to destination in case of an exception.

    Parameters
    ----------
    filepath : string
        the file path to be opened
    fsync : bool
        whether to force write the file to disk
    *args : mixed
        Any valid arguments for :code:`open`
    **kwargs : mixed
        Any valid keyword arguments for :code:`open`
    """
    fsync = kwargs.get('fsync', False)

    with tempfile(dir=os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(filepath))) as tmppath:
        with open(tmppath, *args, **kwargs) as file:
            try:
                yield file
            finally:
                if fsync:
                    file.flush()
                    os.fsync(file.fileno())
        os.rename(tmppath, filepath)

Answer:

Since it is very easy to mess up with the details, I recommend using a tiny library for that. The advantage of a library is that it takes care all these nitty-gritty details, and is being reviewed and improved by a community.

One such library is python-atomicwrites by untitaker which even has proper Windows support:

From the README:

from atomicwrites import atomic_write

with atomic_write('foo.txt', overwrite=True) as f:
    f.write('Hello world.')
    # "foo.txt" doesn't exist yet.

# Now it does.

Answer:

There is a simple AtomicFile helper: https://github.com/sashka/atomicfile

Answer:

I’m using this code to atomically replace/write a file:

import os
from contextlib import contextmanager

@contextmanager
def atomic_write(filepath, binary=False, fsync=False):
    """ Writeable file object that atomically updates a file (using a temporary file).

    :param filepath: the file path to be opened
    :param binary: whether to open the file in a binary mode instead of textual
    :param fsync: whether to force write the file to disk
    """

    tmppath = filepath + '~'
    while os.path.isfile(tmppath):
        tmppath += '~'
    try:
        with open(tmppath, 'wb' if binary else 'w') as file:
            yield file
            if fsync:
                file.flush()
                os.fsync(file.fileno())
        os.rename(tmppath, filepath)
    finally:
        try:
            os.remove(tmppath)
        except (IOError, OSError):
            pass

Usage:

with atomic_write('path/to/file') as f:
    f.write("allons-y!\n")

It’s based on this recipe.

Answer:

Atomic solution for Windows to loop folder and rename files. Tested, atomic to automate, you can increase probability to minimize risk not to event of having same file name. You random library for letter symbols combinations use random.choice method, for digit str(random.random.range(50,999999999,2). You can vary digits range as you want.

import os import random

path = "C:\\Users\\ANTRAS\\Desktop\\NUOTRAUKA\\"

def renamefiles():
    files = os.listdir(path)
    i = 1
    for file in files:
        os.rename(os.path.join(path, file), os.path.join(path, 
                  random.choice('ABCDEFGHIJKL') + str(i) + str(random.randrange(31,9999999,2)) + '.jpg'))
        i = i+1

for x in range(30):
    renamefiles()

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