How to automate an android app without using an automation tool?-ThrowExceptions

Exception or error:

I want to test my app without using an automation tool. So I’m looking for a universal method of automatically interacting with the app on the device or emulator, be it through clicks, swipes, inputs, etc.

I did some research and couldn’t find anything, so how can a task like this be tackled?

How to solve:

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