java – How to stop a Runnable scheduled for repeated execution after a certain number of executions-ThrowExceptions

Exception or error:

Situation

I have a Runnable. I have a class that schedules this Runnable for execution using a ScheduledExecutorService with scheduleWithFixedDelay.

Goal

I want to alter this class to schedule the Runnable for fixed delay execution either indefinitely, or until it has been run a certain number of times, depending on some parameter that is passed in to the constructor.

If possible, I would like to use the same Runnable, as it is conceptually the same thing that should be “run”.

Possible approaches

Approach #1

Have two Runnables, one that cancels the schedule after a number of executions (which it keeps a count of) and one that doesn’t:

public class MyClass{
    private ScheduledExecutorService scheduler = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();

    public enum Mode{
        INDEFINITE, FIXED_NO_OF_TIMES
    }

    public MyClass(Mode mode){
        if(mode == Mode.INDEFINITE){
            scheduler.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new DoSomethingTask(), 0, 100, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
        }else if(mode == Mode.FIXED_NO_OF_TIMES){
            scheduler.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new DoSomethingNTimesTask(), 0, 100, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
        }
    }

    private class DoSomethingTask implements Runnable{
        @Override
        public void run(){
            doSomething();
        }
    }

    private class DoSomethingNTimesTask implements Runnable{
        private int count = 0;

        @Override
        public void run(){
            doSomething();
            count++;
            if(count > 42){
                // Cancel the scheduling.
                // Can you do this inside the run method, presumably using
                // the Future returned by the schedule method? Is it a good idea?
            }
        }
    }

    private void doSomething(){
        // do something
    }
}

I would rather just have one Runnable for the execution of the doSomething method. Tying the scheduling to the Runnable feels wrong. What do you think about this?

Approach #2

Have a single Runnable for the execution of the code that we want to run periodically. Have a separate scheduled runnable that checks how many times the first Runnable has run and cancels when it gets to a certain amount. This may not be accurate, as it would be asynchronous. It feels a bit cumbersome. What do you think about this?

Approach #3

Extend ScheduledExecutorService and add a method “scheduleWithFixedDelayNTimes”. Perhaps such a class already exists? Currently, I’m using Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor(); to get my ScheduledExecutorService instance. I would presumably have to implement similar functionality to instantiate the extended ScheduledExecutorService. This could be tricky. What do you think about this?

No scheduler approach [Edit]

I could not use a scheduler. I could instead have something like:

for(int i = 0; i < numTimesToRun; i++){
    doSomething();
    Thread.sleep(delay);
}

And run that in some thread. What do you think of that? You could potentially still use the runnable and call the run method directly.


Any suggestions welcome. I’m looking for a debate to find the “best practice” way of achieving my goal.

How to solve:

You can use the cancel() method on Future. From the javadocs of scheduleAtFixedRate

Otherwise, the task will only terminate via cancellation or termination of the executor

Here is some example code that wraps a Runnable in another that tracks the number of times the original was run, and cancels after running N times.

public void runNTimes(Runnable task, int maxRunCount, long period, TimeUnit unit, ScheduledExecutorService executor) {
    new FixedExecutionRunnable(task, maxRunCount).runNTimes(executor, period, unit);
}

class FixedExecutionRunnable implements Runnable {
    private final AtomicInteger runCount = new AtomicInteger();
    private final Runnable delegate;
    private volatile ScheduledFuture<?> self;
    private final int maxRunCount;

    public FixedExecutionRunnable(Runnable delegate, int maxRunCount) {
        this.delegate = delegate;
        this.maxRunCount = maxRunCount;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        delegate.run();
        if(runCount.incrementAndGet() == maxRunCount) {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            try {
                while(self == null) {
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(1);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        interrupted = true;
                    }
                }
                self.cancel(false);
            } finally {
                if(interrupted) {
                    Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public void runNTimes(ScheduledExecutorService executor, long period, TimeUnit unit) {
        self = executor.scheduleAtFixedRate(this, 0, period, unit);
    }
}

Answer:

Quoted from the API description (ScheduledExecutorService.scheduleWithFixedDelay):

Creates and executes a periodic action that becomes enabled first after the given initial delay, and subsequently with the given delay between the termination of one execution and the commencement of the next. If any execution of the task encounters an exception, subsequent executions are suppressed. Otherwise, the task will only terminate via cancellation or termination of the executor.

So, the easiest thing would be to “just throw an exception” (even though this is considered bad practice):

static class MyTask implements Runnable {

    private int runs = 0;

    @Override
    public void run() {
        System.out.println(runs);
        if (++runs >= 20)
            throw new RuntimeException();
    }
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
    ScheduledExecutorService s = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();
    s.scheduleWithFixedDelay(new MyTask(), 0, 100, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
}

Answer:

So far sbridges solution seems to be the cleanest one, except for what you mentioned, that it leaves the responsibility of handling the number of executions to the Runnable itself. It should not be concerned with this, instead the repetitions should be a parameter of the class handling the scheduling. To achieve this, I would suggest the following design, that introduces a new executor class for Runnables. The class provides two public methods for scheduling tasks, which are standard Runnables, with finite or infinite repetition. The same Runnable can be passed for finite and infinite scheduling, if desired (which is not possible with all proposed solutions that extend the Runnable class to provide finite repetitions). The handling of canceling finite repetitions is completely encapsulated in the scheduler class:

class MaxNScheduler
{

  public enum ScheduleType 
  {
     FixedRate, FixedDelay
  }

  private ScheduledExecutorService executorService =
     Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();

  public ScheduledFuture<?> scheduleInfinitely(Runnable task, ScheduleType type, 
    long initialDelay, long period, TimeUnit unit)
  {
    return scheduleNTimes(task, -1, type, initialDelay, period, unit);
  }

  /** schedule with count repetitions */
  public ScheduledFuture<?> scheduleNTimes(Runnable task, int repetitions, 
    ScheduleType type, long initialDelay, long period, TimeUnit unit) 
  {
    RunnableWrapper wrapper = new RunnableWrapper(task, repetitions);
    ScheduledFuture<?> future;
    if(type == ScheduleType.FixedDelay)
      future = executorService.scheduleWithFixedDelay(wrapper, 
         initialDelay, period, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
    else
      future = executorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(wrapper, 
         initialDelay, period, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
    synchronized(wrapper)
    {
       wrapper.self = future;
       wrapper.notify(); // notify wrapper that it nows about it's future (pun intended)
    }
    return future;
  }

  private static class RunnableWrapper implements Runnable 
  {
    private final Runnable realRunnable;
    private int repetitions = -1;
    ScheduledFuture<?> self = null;

    RunnableWrapper(Runnable realRunnable, int repetitions) 
    {
      this.realRunnable = realRunnable;
      this.repetitions = repetitions;
    }

    private boolean isInfinite() { return repetitions < 0; }
    private boolean isFinished() { return repetitions == 0; }

    @Override
    public void run()
    {
      if(!isFinished()) // guard for calls to run when it should be cancelled already
      {
        realRunnable.run();

        if(!isInfinite())
        {
          repetitions--;
          if(isFinished())
          {
            synchronized(this) // need to wait until self is actually set
            {
              if(self == null)
              {
                 try { wait(); } catch(Exception e) { /* should not happen... */ }
              }
              self.cancel(false); // cancel gracefully (not throwing InterruptedException)
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

}

To be fair, the logic of managing the repetitions is still with a Runnable, but it’a a Runnable completely internal to the MaxNScheduler, whereas the Runnable task passed for scheduling has to not concern itself with the nature of the scheduling. Also this concern could be easily moved out into the scheduler if desired, by providing some callback every time RunnableWrapper.run was executed. This would complicate the code slightly and would introduce the need of keeping some map of RunnableWrappers and the corresponding repetitions, which is why I opted for keeping the counters in the RunnableWrapper class.

I also added some synchronization on the wrapper when setting the self. This is needed as theoretically, when the executions finish, self might not have been assigned yet (a quite theoretical scenario, but for only 1 repetition possible).

The cancelling is handled gracefully, without throwing an InterruptedException and in case before the cancel is executed, another round is scheduled, the RunnableWrapper will not call the underlying Runnable.

Answer:

Your first approach seems OK. You could combine both types of runnables by passing the mode object to its constructor (or pass -1 as the max number of times it must run), and use this mode to determine if the runnable must be canceled or not :

private class DoSomethingNTimesTask implements Runnable{
    private int count = 0;
    private final int limit;

    /**
     * Constructor for no limit
     */
    private DoSomethingNTimesTask() {
        this(-1);
    }

    /**
     * Constructor allowing to set a limit
     * @param limit the limit (negative number for no limit)
     */
    private DoSomethingNTimesTask(int limit) {
        this.limit = limit;
    }

    @Override
    public void run(){
        doSomething();
        count++;
        if(limit >= 0 && count > limit){
            // Cancel the scheduling
        }
    }
}

You’ll have to pass the scheduled future to your task in order for it to cancel itself, or you might throw an exception.

Answer:

Here is my suggestion (I believe it handles all cases mentioned in the question):

public class RepeatedScheduled implements Runnable {

    private int repeatCounter = -1;
    private boolean infinite;

    private ScheduledExecutorService ses;
    private long initialDelay;
    private long delay;
    private TimeUnit unit;

    private final Runnable command;
    private Future<?> control;

    public RepeatedScheduled(ScheduledExecutorService ses, Runnable command,
        long initialDelay, long delay, TimeUnit unit) {

        this.ses = ses;
        this.initialDelay = initialDelay;
        this.delay = delay;
        this.unit = unit;

        this.command = command;
        this.infinite = true;

    }

    public RepeatedScheduled(ScheduledExecutorService ses, Runnable command,
        long initialDelay, long delay, TimeUnit unit, int maxExecutions) {

        this(ses, command, initialDelay, delay, unit);
        this.repeatCounter = maxExecutions;
        this.infinite = false;

    }

    public Future<?> submit() {

        // We submit this, not the received command
        this.control = this.ses.scheduleWithFixedDelay(this,
            this.initialDelay, this.delay, this.unit);

        return this.control;

    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void run() {

        if ( !this.infinite ) {
            if ( this.repeatCounter > 0 ) {
                this.command.run();
                this.repeatCounter--;
            } else {
                this.control.cancel(false);
            }
        } else {
            this.command.run();
        }

    }

}

In addition, it allows an external party to stop everything from the Future returned by the submit() method.

Usage:

Runnable MyRunnable = ...;
// Repeat 20 times
RepeatedScheduled rs = new RepeatedScheduled(
    MySes, MyRunnable, 33, 44, TimeUnit.SECONDS, 20);
Future<?> MyControl = rs.submit();
...

Answer:

For use cases like polling until a certain timeout, we can approach with a simpler solution using Future.get().

/* Define task */
public class Poll implements Runnable {
    @Override
    public void run() {
        // Polling logic
    }
}

/* Create executor service */
ScheduledExecutorService executorService = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(5);

/* Schedule task - poll every 500ms */
ScheduledFuture<?> future = executorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Poll(), 0, 500, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);

/* Wait till 60 sec timeout */
try {
    future.get(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
} catch (TimeoutException e) {
    scheduledFuture.cancel(false);
    // Take action on timeout
}

Answer:

I’ve been looking for exact same functionality and chose org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger.

Below is full-test working example (sorry if too much flood in code)
applicationContext.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
 xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xmlns:task="http://www.springframework.org/schema/task"
 xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
 xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
 xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/ http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/ http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/task http://www.springframework.org/schema/task/spring-task-3.0.xsd">

    <bean id="blockingTasksScheduler" class="org.springframework.scheduling.concurrent.ThreadPoolTaskScheduler">
        <property name="poolSize" value="10" />
    </bean>

    <task:scheduler id="deftaskScheduler" pool-size="10" />

</beans>

JAVA

package com.alz.springTests.schedulerTest;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.time.ZoneId;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.scheduling.TaskScheduler;
import org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger;
import org.springframework.scheduling.TriggerContext;
import org.springframework.scheduling.concurrent.ThreadPoolTaskScheduler;

public class ScheduledTest {

    private static ApplicationContext applicationContext;
    private static TaskScheduler taskScheduler;

    private static final class SelfCancelableTask implements Runnable, Trigger {
        Date creationTime = new Date();
        AtomicInteger counter = new AtomicInteger(0);
        private volatile boolean shouldStop = false;
        private int repeatInterval = 3; //seconds

        @Override
        public void run() {
            log("task: run started");

            // simulate "doing job" started
            int sleepTimeMs = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt(500, 2000+1);
            log("will sleep " + sleepTimeMs + " ms");
            try {
                Thread.sleep(sleepTimeMs);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            // "doing job" finished

            int i = counter.incrementAndGet();
            if (i > 5) { //cancel myself
                logErr("Attempts exceeded, will mark as shouldStop");
                shouldStop = true;

            } else {
                log("task: executing cycle #"+i);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public Date nextExecutionTime(TriggerContext triggerContext) {
            log("nextExecutionTime: triggerContext.lastActualExecutionTime() " + triggerContext.lastActualExecutionTime());
            log("nextExecutionTime: triggerContext.lastCompletionTime() " + triggerContext.lastCompletionTime());
            log("nextExecutionTime: triggerContext.lastScheduledExecutionTime() " + triggerContext.lastScheduledExecutionTime());

            if (shouldStop) 
                return null;

            if (triggerContext.lastCompletionTime() == null) {
                LocalDateTime ldt = creationTime.toInstant().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toLocalDateTime().plus(repeatInterval, ChronoUnit.SECONDS);
                return Date.from(ldt.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant());
            } else {
                LocalDateTime ldt = triggerContext.lastCompletionTime().toInstant().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toLocalDateTime().plus(repeatInterval, ChronoUnit.SECONDS);
                return Date.from(ldt.atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault()).toInstant());               
            }

        }

    }

    private static void log(String log) {
        System.out.printf("%s [%s] %s\r\n", LocalDateTime.now(), Thread.currentThread(), log);
    }

    private static void logErr(String log) {
        System.err.printf("%s [%s] %s\r\n", LocalDateTime.now(), Thread.currentThread(), log);
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        log("main: Stated...");

        applicationContext = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("applicationContext.xml");

        taskScheduler = (TaskScheduler) applicationContext.getBean("blockingTasksScheduler");

        ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor scheduledThreadPoolExecutor = ((ThreadPoolTaskScheduler)taskScheduler).getScheduledThreadPoolExecutor();

        SelfCancelableTask selfCancelableTask = new SelfCancelableTask();
        taskScheduler.schedule(selfCancelableTask, selfCancelableTask);


        int waitAttempts = 0;
        while (waitAttempts < 30) {
            log("scheduledPool pending tasks: " + scheduledThreadPoolExecutor.getQueue().size());

            try {
                Thread.sleep(1*1000);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                e.printStackTrace();
            }

            waitAttempts++;

        }

        log("main: Done!");


    }

}

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