javascript – NodeJs : TypeError: require(…) is not a function-ThrowExceptions

Exception or error:

I am trying to require a file and afterwards pass it to a var. I am following this tutorial to create a authentication system. After writing the server.js file and trying to compile I got a bson error therefore I changed the line that required the release version of it in mongoose.

Here are my code and error :


    require('./app/routes')(app, passport);


require('./app/routes')(app, passport);

TypeError: require(...) is not a function
           at Object.<anonymous> (d:\Node JS learning\WorkWarV2\server.js:38:24)
           at Module._compile (module.js:434:26)
           at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:452:10)
           at Module.load (module.js:355:32)
           at Function.Module._load (module.js:310:12)
           at Function.Module.runMain (module.js:475:10)
           at startup (node.js:117:18)
           at node.js:951:3

Process finished with exit code 1

I have read that this usually means that requireJS is not getting loaded properly yet I am not aware why or how to fix it.

Edit due to comment:

As asked, here is the result of console.log(require);

How to solve:

I think this means that module.exports in your ./app/routes module is not assigned to be a function so therefore require('./app/routes') does not resolve to a function so therefore, you cannot call it as a function like this require('./app/routes')(app, passport).

Show us ./app/routes if you want us to comment further on that.

It should look something like this;

module.exports = function(app, passport) {
    // code here

You are exporting a function that can then be called like require('./app/routes')(app, passport).

One other reason a similar error could occur is if you have a circular module dependency where module A is trying to require(B) and module B is trying to require(A). When this happens, it will be detected by the require() sub-system and one of them will come back as null and thus trying to call that as a function will not work. The fix in that case is to remove the circular dependency, usually by breaking common code into a third module that both can separately load though the specifics of fixing a circular dependency are unique for each situation.


For me, when I do Immediately invoked function, I need to put ; at the end of require().


const fs = require('fs')

(() => {


const fs = require('fs');

(() => {


For me, this was an issue with cyclic dependencies.

IOW, module A required module B, and module B required module A.

So in module B, require('./A') is an empty object rather than a function.

How to deal with cyclic dependencies in Node.js


For me, I got similar error when switched between branches – one used newer (“typescriptish”) version of @google-cloud/datastore packages which returns object with Datastore constructor as one of properties of exported object and I switched to other branch for a task, an older datastore version was used there, which exports Datastore constructor “directly” as module.exports value. I got the error because node_modules still had newer modules used by branch I switched from.


Remember to export your routes.js.

In routes.js, write your routes and all your code in this function module:

exports = function(app, passport) {

/* write here your code */ 



Just wrap in Arrow function where you requiring the files

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